作者:教写作的英语老师,兴趣是买书和穷游; 知乎ID名:教书匠阿伦

开宗明义,我们先得明白为什么写SAT文章需要套路。道理很简单,没有套路,大多数学生都是瞎写一通,即使整篇文章写完自我感觉良好,好似行云流水,把该说的都说了,基本上分数都只能在5/5/5到6/6/6晃悠,想要那更高的分数,必须学习写作套路。

开头段

万事开头难,作文如何开头难倒不少英雄好汉。我在平时教学中也经常碰到学生开头段有的草草了事,有的长篇大论,其实归根结底就是没有掌握正确的方法。经过分析市面上所有的高分范文,我发现所有的高分开头都一个共性,它们总能准确地把握住评分标准中要求的四个得分点:

话题背景:简单阐述话题发生的背景情况,非必要

文章主旨:说明文章的讨论对象和作者的写作目的,必要

行文技巧:总结挑选出来的值得分析的写作技巧,必要

目标受众:指出这篇文章的目标受众或听众,非必要

 

接下来我们针对 “Foreign News at a Crisis Point” 这篇文章看一下4分到1分的文章开头:

 

[4分开头]

Media presentation from across the globe is vital to the upkeep and maintenance of our society. How this information is obtained and presented, if presented at all, is a different story. Goodman, in “Foreign News at a Crisis Point”, describes the dramatic declining of foreign news coverage in America. He builds an argument to persuade his audience that American news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign reporting through the presentation of statistics, connections to social media as well as using specific diction to establish his argument. His primary audience would be the American public in general.

得分点分析:

[4分开头] Media presentation from across the globe is vital to the upkeep and maintenance of our society. How this information is obtained and presented, if presented at all, is a different story.(背景句)Goodman, in “Foreign News at a Crisis Point”, describes the dramatic declining of foreign news coverage in America. He builds an argument to persuade his audience that American news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign reporting(主旨句)through the presentation of statistics, connections to social media as well as using specific diction to establish his argument.(技巧句)His primary audience would be the American public in general. (目标受众)

[3分开头]

Over the years what is going on in the outside world has started to affect us more. Whether it is a war that is going to effect us physically or even an oil disaster that will effect us economically. However, this news is not always covered. The U.S. news focuses more on what is going on in our own country than outside of it we are not well informed to the world around us. Peter S. Goodman uses many different types of evidence to support his claims and persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to Americans.

得分点分析:

[3分开头] Over the years what is going on in the outside world has started to affect us more. Whether it is a war that is going to effect us physically or even an oil disaster that will effect us economically. However, this news is not always covered. The U.S. news focuses more on what is going on in our own country than outside of it we are not well informed to the world around us.(背景句) Peter S. Goodman uses many different types of evidence (技巧句)to support his claims and persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to Americans.(主旨句)

问题:背景句过于罗嗦,技巧句模糊,主旨句不够全面

[3分开头]

Peter Goodman’s purpose in writing “Foreign News at a Crisis Point” was to persuade his audience that news should include more information about the world as a whole. Goodman’s argument becomes powerful through the use of pathos, using evidence, and also embracing reasoning.

得分点分析:

[3分开头] Peter Goodman’s purpose in writing “Foreign News at a Crisis Point” was to persuade his audience that news should include more information about the world as a whole. (主旨句) Goodman’s argument becomes powerful through the use of pathos, using evidence, and also embracing reasoning. (技巧句)

问题:主旨句不够全面

[2分开头]

In the article “Foreign News At a Crisis Point”, Peter S. Goodman argues that the news organizations should increase the amount of foreign news coverage offered to the Americans

问题:主旨句不全面,缺乏技巧句

[1分开头]

In the Article, “Foreign News at a Crisis Point” by Peter S. Goodman by TheHuffingtonPost.com, the author builds up an argument to persuade his audience. He provided information about American Journalism Review to let people in the community know how it started.

问题:主旨句模糊不清,技巧句缺失

通过以上开头示范分析我们可以看出来想要得到新SAT写作高分,大家的开头要符合以下要点:

结构完整:开头得分点必要成分必须齐全

论述具体:主旨句和技巧句一定要全面和准确

语言简洁:语言切忌罗嗦,特别是背景句尽量不要超过2句话

 

接下来我手把手教大家一步一步写好开头段

1.如何写话题背景句?

背景句的写法非常多样,比如名人名言法,钩子法,社会现象法,大家可以参照托福写作开头写法灵活选择。背景句要做到第一时间吸引读者,顺利过渡到主旨句,切忌长篇累牍,哗众取宠。背景句不是必要成分,不写也不会影响大家的文章最终得分。

2.如何写文章主旨句?

我建议大家写主旨句掌握 WOSP原则:W即Writer,作者的名字;O即Occasion,文章的标题;S即Subject,文章的讨论或者描述对象;P即Purpose,作者的写作目的。大家可以参照以下模板句进行套路练习:

Writer:(Writer’s credentials, if any作者的身份,如果有的话就写,比如美国前总统)+ (Writer’s first and last name 作者的姓名)

Occasion: in his/her (title of the text文章的标题)

Subject: describes/narrates/lists/analyzes/defines/establishes/expresses/recounts+(Writer’s subject文章的讨论或者描述对象)

Purpose: (Writer’s last name作者的姓)’s purpose is to (what the writer does in the text作者的写作目的).

 

我来做个示范:

Writer: Peter Goodman

Occasion: in his “Foreign News at a Crisis Point,”

Subject: describes the dramatic declining of foreign news coverage in America.

Purpose: Goodman’s purpose is to persuade his audience that American news organizations should increase the number of professional foreign reporters.

合起来:

Peter Goodman, in his “Foreign News at a Crisis Point,” describes the dramatic declining of foreign news coverage in America. Goodman’s purpose is to persuade his audience that American news organizations should increase the number of professional foreign reporters.

 

主旨句常用词汇和句型:

 

1. “使用”系列词汇

use/utilize/employ/resort to/refer to/make an effective use of v.使用

The author makes an effective uses of statistics, connections to social media as well as using specific diction to establish his argument.

2. “说服”系列词汇

persuade/convince v. 说服,劝服

(1) persuade/convince sb to do sth

By using anecdote, the author tries to persuade/convince the readers to believe that American news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign reporting.

(2) persuade/convince sb of sth

By using anecdote, the author tries to persuade/convince the readers of the urgency for American news organizations to increase the amount of professional foreign reporting.

(3) persuade/convince sb that

By using anecdote, the author tries to persuade/convince the readers that American news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign reporting.

3. “表达”系列词汇

build/give/deliver/construct/establish/convey v. 传达,表达

The author adeptly constructs his argument by using hard facts, logic reasoning and various types of persuasive elements.

小窍门:在写文章主旨的时候建议参考文末Prompt,会有意想不到的惊喜。

3. 如何写行文技巧句?

行文技巧句建议大家用最简单直白的语句,大家可以参照以下模板句进行套路练习:

He/She effectively conveys this argument by using (skill 1), (skill 2) and (skill 3).

示范:

She effectively conveys this argument by using example, cause-and-effect reasoning, and specific diction.

4.如何写目标受众句?

大家可以通过文章标题和出处锁定粗略锁定文章的目标受众。新SAT写作文章大部分摘自美国主流报刊杂志,因此手中通常是美国大众。但也不排除会有特殊情况,大家还要结合文章内容具体分析。目标受众句非必要成分,大家可以参照以下模板句进行套路练习:

His/Her primary audience would be…

示范:

His primary audience would be the American public in general.

当大家熟练掌握开头段得分点以及基本套路后可以根据个人偏好进行个性化修改。字数大概控制在40字到100字之间。时间控制在3分钟内。

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