作者:Ryan(不愿意透露照片的非典型学渣,美高党)

学渣自述:为学好美国历史,考好AP美国史及SATII美国史而积累素材!从今天开始每天积累历史素材,好好备战!

2018年6月15日  历史上的今天:1776年6月15日

特拉华州,Delaware/State of Delaware,是最早加入美国联邦的州,所以又有第一州(The First State)这个称呼。它的产生及独立与它的相邻州: 宾夕法尼亚州(Commonwealth  of Pennsylvania)戚戚相关。有兴趣的同学可以去查其领主威廉佩恩(William Penn)的故事,非常精彩,你相信一个殖民地领主最后是穷死的么?

On this day in 1776, the Assembly of the Lower Counties of Pennsylvania declares itself independent of British and Pennsylvanian authority, thereby creating the state of Delaware.

Delaware did not exist as a colony under British rule. As of 1704, Pennsylvania had two colonial assemblies: one for the “Upper Counties,” originally Bucks, Chester and Philadelphia, and one for the “Lower Counties on the Delaware” of New Castle, Kent and Sussex. All of the counties shared one governor.

Thomas McKean and Caesar Rodney, the same two men who represented the Lower Counties in the Stamp Act Congress of 1765, proposed the Lower Counties’ simultaneous separation from Pennsylvania and the British crown. McKean and Rodney, along with George Read,represented the Lower Counties at the First Continental Congress in 1774 as well as the Second Continental Congress in 1775-76. When Read refused to vote for independence, McKean had famously summoned an ailing Rodney, who rode overnight from Dover, Delaware, to Philadelphia in order to cast his vote in favor of independence and break the Delaware delegation’s stalemate.

McKean and Rodney were punished for their zealous pursuit of independence in an area heavily populated by Loyalists. The first Delaware General Assembly, a body that owed its existence to McKean and Rodney, chose not to return them to the Continental Congress in October 1776. But, after Wilmington, Delaware, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, fell under British occupation, the second General Assembly returned the two Patriots to the Continental Congress in October 1777. Both men went on to serve as president of the state of Delaware. Rodney held the post from March 31, 1778, to November 6, 1781. McKean served briefly as the acting president from September 22 until October 20, 1777, while George Read traveled from Philadelphia to assume the post, left vacant by John McKinly’s capture by British troops.

TAG: Upper Counties  Lower Counties  Stamp Act Congress

背景延伸:

随着独立战争的爆发,特拉华州大约有4000人报名参加了反对殖民者的战争。战争增强了军队的管理和建设,造就了一批机智勇敢、骁勇善战的军事指挥者,他们在指挥特拉华部队在长岛战役和约克城突围,以及 1777年9月3日Newark附近的Cooch's Bridge战役中,取得了辉煌的胜利。 战后刺激该州经济发展的主要因素就是1785年Oliver Evans发明的自动磨面机。这大大地缩短了该州经济的发展进程。

1786年,John Dickinson主持安那波利斯会议。他在会上呼吁第二年在费城举行联邦宪法会议。新宪法提交认可通过之时,特拉华成为美国最初13个州中第一个修改法律的州。1787年12月7日,多佛会议一致通过新宪法,特拉华成为新联邦的“第一州”。因此,在美国每一位新总统就职日的游行队伍中,最前列永远是特拉华州。