作者:Emma Martin, a student who moved to China in 2011, fell in love with the country almost immediately and hasn't wanted to leave since! She's currently studying Political Science and Global China Studies at Shanghai New York University (上海纽约大学). Emma has been tutoring English of all ages for 4 years now, with a special interest in higher level English. Two of her passions include blogging and freelance jounalism!

In my U.S. politics series, I have given an overview of how the U.S. political systems works, how elections come to play a big role in the U.S.’s democracy, and so on. But sometimes, even I have difficulty deciphering what is fact from myth. Ever heard of Donald Trump’s notorious phrase, “fake news” or heard his infamous speeches declaring war against the media? I have to admit, because of the large quantity of news released on a daily basis from different sources, sometime I don’t know what to believe. However, declaring war against the media and the press is taking away from the significance and the role the press has had since the beginning of the U.S. Constitution. Trump has been heavily criticized for his declaration, from democrats and republicans alike.

在我的美国政治系列文章中,我概述了美国的政治制度是如何运作的,选举是如何在美国民主中发挥重要作用的,等等。但有时候,即使是我也很难从神奇中解读出什么是事实。听说过唐纳德·特朗普的臭名昭著的“假新闻”颁奖,或听过他对媒体宣战的臭名昭著的演讲吗?我不得不承认,由于每天都有大量不同来源的消息发布。很多时候我不知道该相信什么。然而,对媒体和新闻界宣战,会使美国宪法成型之后,传媒界所具有的意义和作用受到削弱。特朗普的演讲也因此受到了民主党人和共和党人的强烈批评。

As mentioned in “U.S. Political System in a Nutshell,” the U.S. Constitution is the law of the land, and no one is above the law. Fortunately, the freedom of the press is protected by the first amendment of the constitution. And although there are restrictions under the amendment, the amendment puts people in charge of distributing information to the public rather than allowing the government to interfere with such information, therefore limiting the government's power over the people.

如“美国政治制度的概述”中所提到的,美国宪法是国家的法律,任何人都不能凌驾于法律之上。幸运的是,宪法的第一项修正案保护了新闻自由。虽然修正案是有限制的,但修正案却规定人民有责任向人民传播资讯,而不由政府干预。因而在新闻传播自由层面,限制了政府权力凌驾于人民之上。

There are different forms of media used in U.S. politics such as newspapers, T.V. networks, magazines, websites, radio, etc. As someone who tries to get her facts and political opinions from different sources, I could sit and watch news-channels all day. From a personal standpoint, many news channels report the same or similar international or national topics, yet it’s common that one news channel may have a different political agenda than the next. The “Big Three” or in other words, the traditional and biggest broadcasting news networks in the U.S. are Cable News Network (CNN), Fox Broadcasting Company (FOX), and MSNBC, a network created under the National Broadcasting Company (NBC). FOX is known to be a quite conservative right leaning network in terms of politics, while MSNBC is the complete opposite in that it’s more liberal and left learning in terms of politics. Although CNN has been criticized as being more left-leaning, I prefer it more than the other two networks because CNN gives a more objective standpoint on most political issues. One reporter that I never make sure to miss is CNN’s Jake Tapper as I regard him as one of the best journalist of our time. Tapper covers an array of news, from politics to sports to culture. Make sure you catch him weekdays at 4pm eastern time!

美国政治中使用的媒体有不同的形式,如报纸、电视网络、杂志、网站、广播等。作为一个试图从不同来源获得事实和政治观点的人,新闻频道可能会花费你整天的时间,因为他们在不断滚动播出。从受众角度来看,许多新闻频道报道同样或类似的国际或国家话题,但一个新闻频道可能有一个与另一个不同的政治议程,这是很常见的。美国传统和最大的广播新闻网络(俗称三大)是有线电视新闻网(CNN)、福克斯广播公司(Fox)和MSNBC,后者是由国家广播公司(NBC)创建的。福克斯在政治方面被认为是一个相当保守的右倾网络,而MSNBC则完全相反,因为它在政治方面更自由、更倾向于左倾。虽然CNN一直被批评为更左倾,但我更喜欢它,因为CNN在大多数政治问题上给出了更客观的观点,而不是其他两个网络。CNN的Jake Tapper是我认为他是我们这个时代最优秀的记者之一,所以我永远不会错过他。从政治、体育到文化,Tapper涵盖了一系列的新闻。东部时间下午4点,追他的节目准没错儿!

I hope that if you have an interest in living or travelling to the U.S. you keep an eye on different forms of media and each’s agenda. The U.S. is in an era of drastic political change and it could affect further generations immensely. Yet, one thing that has remained constant is the freedom of the press and Americans have great pride in knowing that we have the right to know how our country is being run and get to decide for ourselves what to believe. So keep an eye out, watch a news network, read the New York Times or keep up with the Associated Press, you never know what breaking news is next!

如果有兴趣在美国生活或旅行,希望您密切关注不同形式的媒体和各自的日程。美国正处于一个政治大变革的时代,它可能对未来几代人产生巨大影响。然而,有一件事始终没有改变,那就是新闻自由。作为美国人,我们非常自豪有权知道我们的国家是如何运转的,并决定我们应该相信什么。所以,留心观察新闻网,阅读《纽约时报》,或者持续关注美联社,你永远不知道下一个突发新闻是什么